The first 5 dynasties were characterized by great leaders, a period of 755 years. The roll call brings forth names that still resound through the corridors of time: Menes, Athothes, Peribsen, Khasekhem, Imhotep, Zoser, Sneferu, Khufu, Khafre, Userkaf, and Neferefre, and other established Ethiopian (Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt) power as a united empire.
The state became the chief promoter and inspirer of progress on all fronts: agriculture, industrial development, science, arts, engineering, massive building programs, mining, shipbuilding. Internal peace and stability provided the opportunity for the outpouring of much dormant native genius, and religion was the chief motivating source. Every craft society had its own patron sub-god (not to be confused with the Supreme God). It was during this same period that stone was first used in building, hieroglyphic writing was first invented, the great pyramids were built, stone quarrying perfected and expanded and Imhotep became the world’s greatest architect and the “Father of Scientific Medicine”. It was seven and a half centuries of the most glorious pages in the history of the black world.
Dr. Chancellor Williams